Dietary Sources of Glutathione

DIETARY SOURCES OF GLUTATHIONE: Glutathione (GSH) is an antioxidant and detoxifying agent whose protective role has been demonstrated in numerous clinical studies. GSH is synthesized rapidly in the liver, kidneys, and other tissues of the body, including the gastrointestinal tract. This process is effected by aging and disease, as both of these conditions result in reduced tissue and blood levels of glutathione. Dietary forms of glutathione are efficiently absorbed into the blood, however the same is not true for glutathione supplements in humans.

When healthy subjects were given a single dose of up to 3,000 mg of glutathione researchers found there was no increase in blood glutathione levels. (Witschi A, Reddy S, Stofer B, Lauterburg BH. The systemic availability of oral glutathione. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1992;43(6):667-9.) The authors of this study concluded "it is not feasible to increase circulating glutathione to a clinically beneficial extent by the oral administrating of a single dose of 3 g of glutathione." Johnson and coworkers (Johnston CJ, Meyer CG, Srilakshmi JC. Vitamin C elevates red blood cell glutathione in healthy adults. Am J Clin Nutr 58:103-5, 1993) found that blood glutathione levels rose nearly 50% in healthy individuals taking 500 mg of vitamin C daily. Vitamin C facilitates an increase in blood glutathione levels by supplying the body with a nutrient that is critical to the manufacture of it.

In addition, to vitamin C, dietary sources of glutathione and several other nutritional compounds can help increase glutathione levels including N-acetylcysteine (NAC), alpha-lipoic acid, glutamine, methionine, and undenatured whey protein (Bounous, G., and Gold, P., The biological activity of undenatured dietary whey proteins [Immunocal]: role of glutathione, Clin. Invest. Med. (1991) 14(4):296-309.). N-acetylcysteine has been used in combination with glutamic acid (or glutamine) and glycine (Clark, J. at www.cfsn.com) and in addition, NAC has been studied in combination with dietary proteins (Quig, D., Cysteine metabolism and metal toxicity, Alternative Medicine Review (1998) 3(4):262-270.).

HERBS: The herb milk-thistle, an excellent source of the antioxidant compound silymarin may help to prevent glutathione depletion in the liver. Silymarin is many times more potent in antioxidant activity than the better known antioxidant vitamins E and vitamin C. The protective effect of silymarin against liver damage has been demonstrated in a number of scientific studies. Silymarin has been shown to protect against liver damage by extremely toxic chemicals (this toxicity is mediated by their ability to produce dangerous and destructive unstable compounds called free radicals) including amanita toxin, carbon tetrachloride, galactosamine, and praseodymium nitrate. Silymarin enhances detoxification in the liver by preventing the depletion of glutathione.

Glutathione in the liver is essential to the liver's ability to detoxify. The higher the liver glutathione content, the greater the liver's capacity to detoxify harmful chemicals. Chemicals which can damage the liver, (including alcohol and acetominophen), cause the concentration of glutathione in the liver is substantially reduced, making the hepatocytes (liver cells) susceptible to damage. Silymarin not only prevents the depletion of glutathione induced by alcohol and other toxins (Chrungoo VJ et al. Indian J Exp Biol. 1997 Jun;35(6):611-7.), but can increase the level of glutathione in the cells of the liver (hepatocytes) (Valenzuela A et al. Planta Med. 1989 Oct;55(5):420-2.), and possibly by up to 35%.

Curcumin may also be useful as an agent to increase tissue glutathione levels (Dickinson, D.A., Iles, K.E., Zhang, H., Blank, V., and Forman, H.J., Curcumin alters EpRE and AP-1 binding complexes and elevates glutamate-cysteine ligase gene expression, FASEB J. (2003) 17(3):473-475.)

Alpha Lipoic Acid has also demonstrated it's ability to increase glutathione levels and act as a potent antioxidant in numerous scientific studies.

VITAMINS & MINERALS: vitamin B6, riboflavin, and selenium are required in the manufacture of glutathione, and adequate dietary consumption of foods rich in (or supplementation with) these vitamins and minerals can help the body to optimize glutathione production.

MILK PRODUCTS & MEAT:Dietary glutathione occurs in highest amounts in fresh (uncooked) meats, in moderate amounts in certain raw fruits and vegetables, and is absent or found only in small amounts in grains and pasteurized dairy products (JONES DP, COATES RJ, FLAGG EW, et al. (1992) Glutathione in Foods listed in the National Cancer Institute's Health Habits and History Food Frequency Questionnaire. Nutr Cancer 17: 57-75 ). Foods richest in sulfur-containing amino acids are usually the best source of glutathione. Although undenatured whey protein is one of the best precursors (building blocks) for glutathione, it contains only moderate levels of naturally occuring glutathione. Freshly prepared (rare or raw) meats, raw (unpasturized) milk, and raw eggs are also an especially rich source of glutathione. Cooking reduces glutathione content, and storage also impacts the glutathione content of foods. In human breast milk put aside for later use by breast-fed babies, a 73-79% loss of glutathione occurred when the milk was either kept at room temperature or refrigerated for two hours. (Ankrah NA, Appiah-Opong R, Dzokoto C. Human breastmilk storage and the glutathione content. J Trop Pediatr. 2000;46(2):111-3.)

FRUITS & VEGETABLES: Fresh fruits and vegetables provide excellent levels of glutathione, but cooked foods contained far less or none at all, and highly processed foods contain less than minimally processed cooked foods. Glutathione assays of fruits and vegetables may yield contrasting results because glutathione levels vary both diurnally (KOIKE S, PATTERSON BD (1988) Diurnal variation of glutathione levels in tomato seedlings. Hort Sci 23: 713-714; SCHUPP R, RENNENBERG H (1988) Diurnal changes in the glutathione content of spruce needles (Picea abies L.) Plant Sci 57: 113-117 ) with the stage of development of the plant (EARNSHAW BA, JOHNSON MA (1987) Control of wild carrot somatic embryo development by antioxidants. Plant Physiol 85: 273-276;), and due to various environmental factors (DE KOK LJ, DE KAN PJL, TANCZOS OG, KUIPER PJC (1981) Sulphate-induced accumulation of glutathione and frost-tolerance of spinach leaf tissue. Physiol Plant 53: 435-438; WISE RR, NAYLOR AW (1987) Chilling-enhanced photooxidation. The peroxidative destruction of lipids during chilling injury to photosynthesis and ultrastructure. Plant Physiol 83: 272-277).

Asparagus contains more glutathione than all other fruits and vegetables analyzed to date. (Jones, D.P. and others: Glutathione in foods listed in the National Cancer Institute's health habits and history food frequency questionnaire, Nutrition and Cancer 17 (1), p. 57, 1992.) In a study which compared the overall antioxidant activity of potatoes, bell peppers, carrots, onions and broccoli, potatoes ranked second highest after broccoli.

Per serving, asparagus, avocadoes, asparagus, squash, okra, cauliflower, broccoli, potatoes, spinach, walnuts, garlic, and raw tomatoes have the highest glutathione content compared to other vegetables and are particularly rich dietary sources of glutathione (please see the Table 1. below).

Table 1. Comparison of Glutathione in Fresh vs. Cooked Foods
(in milligrams per 3 1/2 oz (100 g) serving)

Food Glutathione Content
Apples Uncooked: 21.0 mg Cooked: 0.0 mg
Carrots Uncooked: 74.6 mg Cooked: 0.0 mg
Grapefruit Uncooked: 70.6 mg Cooked: 0.0 mg
Spinach Uncooked: 166 mg Cooked: 27.1 mg
Spinach (4) Uncooked: 9.65 mg Cooked: N/A mg
Tomatoes Uncooked: 169 mg Cooked: 0.0 mg
Asparagus (4) Uncooked: 28.3 mg Cooked: N/A mg
Avocado (4) Uncooked: 27.7 mg Cooked: N/A mg
Purslane (4) Uncooked: 14.81 mg Cooked: N/A mg

(1). JONES DP, COATES RJ, FLAGG EW, et al. (1992) Glutathione in Foods listed in the National Cancer Institute's Health Habits and History Food Frequency Questionnaire. Nutr Cancer 17: 57-75

(2). BLOCK G, DRESSER CM, HARTMAN AM, CARROLL MD (1985) Nutrient sources in the American diet: Quantitative data from the NHANES II Survey. I. Vitamins and Minerals. Am J Epidemiol 122: 13-26

(3). BLOCK G, DRESSER CM, HARTMAN AM, CARROLL MD (1985) Nutrient sources in the American diet: Quantitative data from the NHANES II Survey. Macronutrients and Fats. Am J Epidemiol 122: 27-40

(4) SIMOPOULOS AP, NORMAN HA, GILLASPY JE (1995) Purslane in human nutrition and its potential for world agriculture. World Rev Nutr Diet 77: 47-74

Posted at: http://www.nutritionadvisor.com/glutathione_foods.php; http://www.nutritionadvisor.com/glutathione_foods.php

Dr. Petrosino received his Baccalaureate degree from Penn State University in 1975, pursued his Masters degree with honors at Penn State in 1978, and graduated Summa Cum Laude with a Doctorate in Nutrition from Lasalle University (Mandeville) in 1995. His doctoral dissertation examined the effects of race and poverty on cardiovascular health. He was an Adjunct Professor of Nutrition at LaSalle University (1995-1999); a member of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Consensus Development Committee on Cardiovascular Disease; a Professional Member and Charter Member of the American Heart Association Scientific Council on Epidemiology and Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease; a Professional Member and Charter Member of the American Heart Association Scientific Council on Nutrition, Physical Activity and Metabolism; a Professional Member of the American Heart Association Interdisciplinary Working Group on Functional Genomics and Translational Biology; an Allied Health Care Practitioner member of the American Preventive.....

limo Midway Lisle ..
In The News:

Kurt "CyberGuy" Knutsson offers a travel toolkit featuring five technology tools to help you with booking flights and hotels for your summer vacation.
The bubble behind the clock on your iPhone can appear in different colors. Kurt "CyberGuy" Knutsson explains what each of those colors mean.
Scammers are using the power of artificial intelligence to mimic voices of people and are using the fake voices to commit crimes, like kidnappings.
Stay up to date on the latest AI technology advancements and learn about the challenges and opportunities AI presents now and for the future.
Tech guru Kurt "CyberGuy" Knutsson explains the science behind the Invisibility Shield, a 6-foot shield that makes people become invisible.
The International Olympic Committee on Friday announced plans to use AI in various Olympic aspects, including athlete identification, training and judging.
Tech guru Kurt "CyberGuy" Knutsson explains an easy trick to avoid squinting while working or surfing the web by zooming in on your personal computer.
Streaming giant Roku has recently been targeted by a pair of cyberattacks, and the company confirmed over a half million Roku accounts were compromised.
The Land Aircraft Carrier combines an all-terrain, six-wheeled vehicle with a two-seat aircraft, which features electric vertical takeoff and landing.
The European Union has sent TikTok a "request for information" on the video sharing platform's newest app, TikTok Lite, under the Digital Services Act, with the aim to clean up social media.
Stay up to date on the latest AI technology advancements and learn about the challenges and opportunities AI presents now and for the future.
The FBI is warning the public about a recent phishing scam via text that claims its targets owe money in Pennsylvania for unpaid road toll charges.
Your Apple Music settings may be revealing to your contacts what you're listening to. Kurt "CyberGuy" Knutsson explains the process to change those settings.
Learn how to secure social media accounts, implement legacy contacts, and create a digital estate plan to protect your online assets from 'ghost hackers' after your death.
A ported phone number scam is leading to more people having their identities stolen by sophisticated scammers. Kurt “CyberGuy" Knutsson tells you what you need to know.
The Great Pacific Garbage Patch, a vast marine debris vortex, is being tackled by The Ocean Cleanup’s innovative technologies. Kurt “CyberGuy" Knutsson explains.
Discover easy solutions to tame autocorrect frustration on iOS and Android devices. Turn off, customize and add personal touches to your typing experience.
Kurt “CyberGuy" Knutsson reveals the six top things to do right now before it’s too late: Tech and life choices that can keep your safer on and offline.
Kurt “CyberGuy" Knutsson shows you some simple steps to discreetly hide apps or an entire app page on your iPhone for decluttering or confidentiality.
The ambient light sensors on smartphones may be turned into cameras, according to researches at MIT. This could pose a threat to people's privacy.
The Autonomous Road Repair System from tech firm Robotiz3d uses artificial intelligence technology to locate potholes and promptly seal them.
Scammers have stooped to using artificial intelligence to scan obituary websites to create fake obituary websites to target the grieving.
Stay up to date on the latest AI technology advancements and learn about the challenges and opportunities AI presents now and for the future.
A Mercedes-Benz Manufacturing factory in Hungary is using humanoid robots to help with human staffing shortages on the factory floor.
Some video games act like unregulated banks, according to CFPB, which has begun monitoring the situation. The agency says children may be most at risk.

The Truth About Omega 3

Since Dr Basant Puri, a consultant psychiatrist and senior lecturer... Read More

Creating Your Target of Health

Creating Your Target is easy.What I use to help create... Read More

Unhealthy Foods: How To Become Disgusted By Junk Foods That Make You Fat

With today's time constraints, stressful jobs, and "thin is in"... Read More

Fruits and Vegetables and Phytochemicals

I'm willing to bet you probably haven't heard the word... Read More

Being Proactive With Your Health Decisions

In today's world, there's a definite need to be proactive... Read More

Can Chronic Pain Come From Food Additives?

It is always amazing to me when I find a... Read More

Fighting Burn-out: Natural Help For Stress, Fatigue and Adrenal Insufficiency

The adrenal or "stress glands" are small, triangular shaped glands... Read More

The Fountain of Youth - Right in Front of Us All This Time!

Can we really stop the aging process, slow it down,... Read More

High Acid Levels Lead to Cardiovascular Disease

THE RISKWhen you consume food that's high in acid or... Read More

Do You Need Omega 3 Fatty Acids?

Do you need omega 3 fatty acid in your diet?... Read More

Food with Niacin and The Benefits

Niacin, also called nicotinic acid, is a member of the... Read More

Dietary Sources of Glutathione

DIETARY SOURCES OF GLUTATHIONE: Glutathione (GSH) is an antioxidant and... Read More

Protein: Common or Missing Link?

Most of us equate the word diet with calorie reduction.... Read More

Calorie Deficit

I am sure you have heard you have to build... Read More

Nutrient Requirements of Women in Sport

Female and male athletes respond to training in a fairly... Read More

Healthy Eating Made Simple

The confusion about eating healthy and dieting will now be... Read More

Is It Possible to Improve Your Health by Simply Drinking More Water?

To many people, this may seem a simplistic answer to... Read More

Omega 3 Fat is Good for Your Heart and for Your Brain

Scandinavian fishermen are a healthy bunch. It had long been... Read More

Foods to Fight Disease

When it comes to food, we can't ignore the facts... Read More

Three Cheers for Heart Healthy Oils!

You may have noticed an ever-expanding choice of oils at... Read More

The coq10 Benefit

Coq10 is also known as Coenzyme Q10.This co q10 is... Read More

Seasonings: Add More Than Just Flavor

Besides providing taste, color, and aroma, certain seasonings can also... Read More

Eating Instinctively

I start from the premise that eating instinctively means eating... Read More

4 Important Facts You Should Know About Whey Protein

Are you concerned about taking care of your body before... Read More

Finding Your Reason Why to be Healthy

The most incredible thing you can do for yourself is... Read More

Antigo Chicago limo ..