Drug testing

German Philosophers

German Culture: German Philosophers

German and German speaking philosophers have made vast contributions to philosophy, and through philosophy, to the course of world history. Perhaps the most influential were the 'great triumvirate' of Kant, Hegel and Marx. Other noteworthy philosophers include Schopenhauer, Nietzsche, Heidegger and the Nobel prize-winner Hermann Hesse.

One of the greatest characters of German philosophy was Friedrich Nietzsche, who professed himself to be "a follower of Dionysus, the god of life's exuberance", and declared that he hoped Dionysus would replace Jesus as the primary cultural standard for future millennia.

Nietzsche showed his academic talents early on. As a child he didn't like playing, and the neighbour's children called him 'the little minister'. He died in 1900 after 11 years of madness. He went insane one morning after seeing a horse being whipped by a coachman. Historians argue whether his insanity was caused by syphilis, drug abuse, or a disease inherited from his father.

Nietzsche was heavily influenced by the work of Schopenhauer, a man so unpleasant, negative and pessimistic that even his own mother eventually banned him from her house.

Schopenhauer's philosophy was based on that of Kant, but he did not believe in individual free will, he believed that we are all part of a vast single will which is the entire universe, and any sense of individuality is pure illusion.

Schopenhauer never married, perhaps not surprisingly considering his view of women, he once declared that women "are directly fitted for acting as the nurses and teachers of our childhood by the fact that they are themselves childish, frivolous and short-sighted; in a word, they are big children all their life long." Instead, he shared his lonely existence with a poodle.

The first of the 'great triumvirate', Kant, was born in 1724 in K?nigsberg, (now part of Russia, and called Kaliningrad). He was one of the fathers of 'critical philosophy', and divided modes of thinking into two kinds, analytic and synthetic.

Analytical propositions are those which can be proven to be true by analysis, for example 'pink boots1 are boots2'. This statement must be true, because the predicate is contained in the subject. (If pink boots1 weren't boots2, then they wouldn't be boots1!)

Synthetic propositions are those that cannot be contrived purely from analysis, for example, 'the boot is pink', this relates to something in the real world and cannot be shown to be true or untrue purely by analysis of the statement, you need to see the boot. His most famous works include his 'Critique of Pure Reason' and 'The Metaphysics of Ethics', in which he discussed his views on ethics.

Kant died in 1804, when Hegel was 33. Hegel was born in Stuttgart and his philosophy was greatly influenced by that of Kant. After an inheritance he was able to devote his entire life to academic works.

He believed that dialectical reasoning (debate by question and answer to resolve two differing points of view) was the only way for progress in human thought. He believed that all men were fundamentally free, and that our task is to find a state or a set of laws under which we can all live freely.

Hegel did not advocate anarchy, rather he thought that we could make ourselves free by choosing to obey laws we knew to be rational. Hegel died in 1831 of cholera, after one day's illness. He was buried next to another German philosopher, Fichte, and near another, Karl Solger, in a plot he had chosen himself.

The last of these three, with perhaps the biggest influence on recent history, born in 1818, was Karl Marx. He is in fact best known for his economic theories, especially one seminal work he produced together with Engels, 'The Communist Manifesto'. In fact this only represents only a tiny fraction of his thought. Overall, his writing on Communism represents only an aside, he wrote much more simply in criticism of capitalism, or on analysis of concrete political events.

An even more contemporary philosopher was Martin Heidegger, who died only in 1976. He was strongly influenced by Nietzsche, and in turn his work influenced the French existentialist Jean Paul Sartre, although Heidegger himself disagreed with existentialist interpretations of his work. His work has had a great influence on Western philosophy, but he has received little public recognition because of his refusal to apologise for his involvement with the National Socialist Party. To what degree he was involved is still unclear.

Standing like a giant over modern German literary philosophy is the Nobel prize-winner, Hermann Hesse. At the age of 13 he was told he would be 'a poet or nothing', so he started off by writing unimpressive romantic novels. His first successful work was the more philosophical 'Peter Camenzind', which positively burned with anger at his repressed and traditional childhood.

His most widely read work is 'Siddhartha', which was published in 1922, it is based on the idea that man's true nature has been lost and can only be found through self expression.

Hesse was at one point accused of supporting the Nazis, whom he did not openly criticize, but while based in Switzerland he did a lot to help political refugees from Germany, and refused to leave out sections of his works which dealt with pogroms and anti-Semitism. His publisher Peter Suhrkamp, was arrested by the Nazis in 1944.

Hesse received the Nobel Prize in 1946, and thereafter did not produce further major works. He died in 1962.

by Robert Easton (c) Soccerphile.com

Robert Easton is a UK based journalist specializing in Germany and German culture. He has written a series of Germany-related articles for http://www.soccerphile.com

In The News:

A hairy collection worth thousands goes on display at the Philadelphia Museum of History. Collector, Robert Peck, couldn’t believe whose hair he rescued from the trash.
Excavations in Israel are shedding new light on the history of a Biblical site linked to the Ark of the Covenant.
A "treasure trove" of dinosaur footprints — from at least seven different species — that date back about 100 million years have been uncovered by storm surge in the United Kingdom, researchers from the University of Cambridge revealed on Monday.
A strong storm likely caused a massive Atlantic bluefin tuna to wash up on a beach in Scotland over the weekend, creating quite a spectacle on the island of Sanday.
WASHINGTON — To find life on Mars, scientists may need to give up surface exploration and "go deep."
A team of paleontologists recently announced the discovery of a new horned dinosaur — a member of the Triceratops family — in the midst of 73-million-year-old rocks in southern Arizona.
WASHINGTON — The history of maritime vessels in the U.S. is preserved in an unlikely place — at the bottom of a river.
The concept of time travel has always captured the imagination of physicists and laypersons alike. But is it really possible? Of course it is. We’re doing it right now, aren’t we? We are all traveling into the future one second at a time.
Divers have recently found the barred knifejaw, a fish native only to Japan, swimming in the waters of Monterey Bay, Calif.
Europa may be the most likely place to host alien life. Beneath its surface is a salty ocean, warmed by the play of gravity on the moon’s metal core. But how do you peer through sheet ice?

Man Is Not An Island

Our thoughts do not take leave of absence.They are actually... Read More

Nostradamus Saw

The Luciferians are the inner cabal of the Vatican according... Read More

Three Theories

An event occurs, then there must be an antecedent event,... Read More

Platos Atlantis: Fact, Fiction or Prophecy?

Atlantis is often described as paranormal or mythical, but is... Read More

Plato to Bushco

The Neoplatonic Hierarchy:The twentieth century has seen a lot of... Read More

Future Shock

Futurists like Alvin Toffler and his wife are important parts... Read More

Stranded Notions: Time And Philosophy Of The Individual

As I look back now, a long time seems to... Read More

Youre Wrong

Isn't it amazing how often you're wrong? I mean that... Read More

Nature Worship

NATURE WORSHIP: - Wicca and witchcraft or other shamanic attunements... Read More

Understanding Of I-Ching And Tai Chi In Relation To Our Lives

Tai Chi, The Great Ultimate, was found earliest in the... Read More

The Magi

I find no real fault in Constantine's inclusion or plagiarization... Read More

Its Not Your Fault!

Saying goodbye is easy for the traveler. I am a... Read More

Life in the Universe; Part 1

Is there life ( extraterrestrial life or any other form... Read More

Viewing from Anothers Perspective Sets Humans Apart?

Recently I discussed what sets humans apart from other animals... Read More

Desire is the First Step

When a member of a species determines it wants something... Read More

Why Im Glad Im Not a Minority Writer

I'll admit that I used to be jealous of my... Read More

From Experience: Is It the Circle of Life?

All of it in one way or another a part... Read More

Privilege - Alfred Lee Loomis and Hecateus

ALFRED LEE LOOMIS:Privilege sometimes leads to productivity and creativity through... Read More

The Keltoi

The CIA's motto is "You shall know the truth and... Read More

Raindrops Keep Falling On My Web

I really believe there are things nobody would see if... Read More

The Early Life of Jesus

INTRODUCTION:Yeshua bar Joseph or Yeshua ben Joseph has become known... Read More

Common Psi-sense

Up until the start of the 20th Century there was... Read More

Guerrilla Mythbusting: 5 Snappy Rules For Spotting and Exposing Popular Nonsense

College students tend to wax enthusiastic about the lessons they... Read More

Archetypes

DEPTH PSYCHOLOGY (ARCHETYPES): - "All material bodies are condensations of... Read More

Alumpeth Devi Temple of Kerala in India

Alumpeth temple is an ancient kalari temple of Sri Bhadrakali... Read More

commercial led lighting fixtures garage lights Pete's produce ..